STUDY OF POPULATION, RIGHTS, USES AND CUSTOMS
OTERO DE SARIEGOS (ZAMORA) 19th CENTURY
The history of Otero de Sariegos is marked by a relentless fight, aimed at preserving its survival, in the face of the threat of disappearance.
Its origins are very ancient, back in the year 1116 its name already appears inscribed in the belongings of the cathedral of León, as a distant possession subject to the whim and arbitrariness of its lords.
In the 16th century it was consolidated as an incipient village populated with 26 residents, a number that would increase to 42 in 1591.
In 1665 it was completely depopulated and its neighbors went to live in other places. The church was demolished.
According to researcher Elías Rodríguez, in 1673 the assets of the church of Otero, which was unpopulated, were added to the parishes of Villafáfila, and the books, liturgical objects, census deeds and properties were deposited. Even the altarpiece dedicated to San Martín was moved to the church of the same name in Villafáfila in 1675 by order of the bishop of Astorga, after consultation with the Constable, as lord of Otero [1 ] .
Otero, despite the demographic problems observed at the end of the 17th century, became a stable rural municipality for almost a hundred years. Perhaps it is worth remembering it and thinking that this unique village in Tierra de Campos is something more than a bird observatory.
It is a duty to review its past, expose and make known the most significant aspects of its existence, to preserve them from oblivion.
2. POPULATION OF OTERO IN THE 19TH CENTURY
The source consulted is the Registration Book of the parishioners of the parish  .
The variability and casuistry of population movement is exposed through various tables prepared by the author of this work.
Table 1. Evolution of the population. Own elaboration
The increase in population reflected in the table is significant, considering the characteristics of this municipality, since it represents an increase of 38 inhabitants, in the period of eight years (1854 - 1862).
The percentage difference between men and women is barely 2 points more in their favor, with one exception observed in 1856, in which the female percentage decreased by 2 points.
The recorded data indicate that the number of inhabitants tends to stabilize and even increase.
Table 2. Distribution of the population by streets and by number of houses, year 1856. Own elaboration.
Table 2 shows the distribution of inhabitants by streets with the variables referring to sex and the number of inhabited homes. Ruined buildings, stables, bread bins, etc. are not included. The year 1856 is taken as a reference, the only one in which this distribution appears reflected.
The analyzed indicators constitute a close view of how the urban layout was configured.
The town was located on a main street (Larga) in which a significant number of homes (15) were concentrated. Parallel to this, although with fewer buildings, was Sol Street.
The rest of the houses were located on secondary streets that converged into one of the previous two, except for the Plazuela de la Iglesia, which was an extension in which 14 houses were concentrated, close to the aforementioned building.
Table 3. Ages (maximum/minimum of spouses). Own elaboration
It is observed that the age of access to marriage, in both sexes, is very equal at around 23 years. Men a few months earlier than women, but the difference is not significant.
The weighted average lifespan of a marriage is about 48 years, considering that the man dies around 68 years old and the woman dies at 78 years old.
Table 4. Composition of families according to the number of members. Own elaboration
The term nuclear family refers to households made up of parents and children. The absence of one of the spouses does not appear in the analyzed record, nor does the existence of “extended families” that include, in addition to the nuclear family, other members: grandparents, uncles, cousins, etc.
Regarding the inclusion of “one-member family”, in this situation it refers to people who live alone, without specifying the circumstances (singleness or widowhood). The data analyzed indicate that 73% are made up of nuclear families and 23% are made up of nuclear families. % remaining, those composed of a single member.
The increase in the number of families with children is carried out progressively (53% to 85%) and inversely in terms of the absence of children (47% to 12%). This positive evolution is determined by the increase in population (more couples in childbearing age). It cannot be rigorously established that the average age of men and women shown in Table 5 has contributed to explaining the population increase, although the fact that the population pyramid contains a large sector of men and women (between 39 -42 years), may have influenced.
Table 5. Average age of men and women. Own elaboration
Table 6. Percentages referring to marital status. Own elaboration
The number of widowers remains stable on the time scale studied. As for women, a slight variability is observed.
In general, the marriage index registers a certain stability with a slightly altered deviation of 1 or less 1, influenced by the increase in population that absorbs the losses produced by the number of deaths.
Table 7. Population and children ratios. Own elaboration
The population ratio is the ratio between the number of inhabitants and the number of neighbors. The number of children is the result of dividing the number of children by the number of neighbors (family unit).
The data corresponding to inhabitants, neighbors and children also appear in table 1.
The values that indicate the number of inhabitants are correlated with the number of neighbors. The ratio referring to the number of children per family, although they are estimated figures, reflect an unquestionable reality referring to the low rate of children in the years 1854/1855, (1 child) and this figure can be traced back with difficulty from 1856 to place in 1862 into two children. After this date, an increasing rate will not be maintained, contributing to a gradual and inexorable decline in the 20th century.
Table 8. Labor Situation of the population in 1856. Own elaboration
The active population reflected in table 8 constitutes 37%, with farmers (22%) being the largest segment, followed by servants (10%).
About half of the population has a job; The number of poor people (2) is barely testimonial.
Civil law in Spain between 1833 and 1868 contemplates the figure of the solemn poor as a citizen who was entitled to the procedural benefits of poverty and obtained certain social aid (free health care, food, clothing, etc.) .
In Otero de Sariegos, there were no poor people in the radical sense, what did exist were people with barely any economic resources who lived as subsidiary servants (not with stable employment).
Table 9. Location of origin. Year 1862. Own elaboration
The fundamental core of the number of inhabitants is the town of Otero de Sariegos (115 inhabitants, which represents 77% of the total population), consolidating the stability of this town.
3. GENERAL ANALYSIS OF THE POPULATION OF OTERO DE SARIEGOS
A graph of the population movement of Otero de Sariegos is offered, according to the data provided by the Ensenada Cadastre, National Institute of Statistics and those corresponding to the parish censuses, indicated previously.
Graph 1. Longitudinal distribution of the population of Otero de Sariegos. Source: Own elaboration based on data from the Ensenada Cadastre, INE and others.
The population decline began decisively after 1960 (97 inhabitants); coinciding with the period of internal emigration from the province of Zamora to Madrid, Valladolid, the Basque Country, Catalonia, etc. The loss of inhabitants will be irreversible. Other factors that have contributed to the disappearance of Otero must be highlighted, such as the absence of birth rates - which has been previously indicated - and the aging of the population.
3.1 Evolution of surnames 
To carry out an analysis of how surnames have evolved in Otero de Sariegos, the content analysis technique has been applied, referring to frequency count and classification.
The surnames used refer to the first surname (of the head of the nuclear or single-parent family) -
Table 10. List of surnames (1882-1883). Own elaboration
• The population of Otero de Sariegos is variable since the fluctuations are pronounced.
• Starting in 1882, the population stabilized around a not very large nucleus of families (40) that established the social foundations of a small municipality.
• Although the surnames analyzed do not constitute a single branch, some of them are part of a restricted area in such a way that they have barely crossed the geographical barriers of Otero and the area of influence of the surrounding municipalities (Villarrín, Villafáfila, San Agustín, Revellinos , etc.), such as: Suena, Morejón, Ojero, Toranzo, Miñambres, Fidalgo, etc.
4. PARISH RIGHTS: USES AND CUSTOM
In the inventory carried out in 1853 in Otero de Sariegos, from the Parish Archive by D. Dámaso Martín Costilla (parish priest)  the Factory, Sacramental, Synodal, Brotherhood, and Tazmías Books are listed. In the latter, quite deteriorated, with reused parchment covers, the content recorded is heterogeneous since in addition to the basic aspects referring to the Tazmías (a detailed record of relationships or lists of parishioners who paid tithes and production data ), includes “rights and customs, provisions and anniversaries”, which theoretically should not appear here. This custom of taking advantage of factory books and even sacramentals to add or record topics unrelated to them is a practice that was carried out to save paper.
The research work refers to the parish rights included in the aforementioned manuscript. They constitute a sociological reference that helps to understand the organization of ecclesial services and customs related to religious practices, describing the conduct to follow in baptisms, burials, funerals, processions, etc. assigning a valuation according to a tariff on the professional activities of priests.
The study presented below reflects the amounts accrued as parish fees corresponding to the various religious services that the parish priest carried out in his parish. Also described are the different “uses and customs” of a religious nature that the priests carried out on the occasion of liturgical functions: weddings, burials, festivities, etc.
Description of aspects Weddings
Church Rights: Proclamations and masses, 4 reales
Sacristan Rights: 4 reales
Church: Certificates, 13 reales
Custom: After getting married, the priest accompanies the couple to their home Baptisms
Church Rights: 4 reales. Sacristan Rights: 2 reales
Custom: Accompany the priest home after the baptism. When the woman who has given birth leaves home, she gives the priest a chicken or its equivalent (4 reales)
Large body burials
Church fees: 24 reales, including the entire service (burial and services). They must also provide: 2 candles, 1 quarter of wheat, 2 pounds of bread, 1 roll of matches; half a zumbre of wine. If other priests attend, 16 reales are added. The candles shine until the offertory
Sacristan's fees: 6 reales
Custom: For nine days after the burial, responses are said for the deceased at the door of the church or in front of it. If a novena is made, the responses are made at the home of the deceased's relatives.
cape of year
Church fees: 12 reales, 1 quartal of wheat, 8 pounds of bread, 1 roll of matches, 2 candles, 1 quart of wine.
Sacristan's fees: 4 reales Burial of toddlers
Church rights: Only offices 8 reales; mass and services 14 reales. Sacristan's fees: 2 reales
Grave breaking fees: 4 reales, for the church fund. Fourth funeral
This variety is defined as the fourth part of the Mass that the deceased leaves for his soul, which the testamentaries cannot dispose of because it belongs to the Parish Priest. This fourth of masses that are prayed for the soul of the deceased, are carried out according to the heritage and location of the deceased.
Brotherhood of the Rosary
The services consisted of: function, procession and compline (8 reales). It did not include the charge for the mass, although it was officiated. However, alms were requested (at will) for this service.
If the next day there was an Animas mass (10 reales); rights of the sacristan (3 reales). Custom: Accompany the preacher and steward, after vespers and masses,
to his house that offered dinner and lunch. The butler is appointed by the priest “and it should not be noted that he is named Butler since everything is for alms . ”
Church fees for mass and office: 8 reales. Sacristan's fees: 2 reales
Offering of the people
Custom: They were celebrated on these occasions: Christmas Easter, Pentecost, Resurrection; Three Kings' Day and Saint Martin's Day (patron saint of the town).
During the offertory, the priest goes down to the lower tier and, wearing the bonnet, waits for the Board and others who want to come to kiss the hands, and then the women and once concluded, a responso pro difuntis is made there .
Procession of Souls
Custom: On some Sundays in winter, spring and autumn, a procession of Animas is held “and it is praiseworthy that it continues, since God is the one who pays . ”
Vow of Saint Mark: blessing of bread and incantations
The vow consisted of going in a procession to the hermitage of Our Lady of Villarigo or Villarigo. They carried only a cross and no image. The Board was in charge of finding a priest to say the vow mass without the priest omitting his in the town.
Said Board contributes: two reales for the mass, leftover bread in said hermitage and they give alms to the priest 8 reales and to the parish priest 28 reales for blessing bread and incantations.
It was carried out during the harvest time and when the oxen went to graze in the Valdecasas meadow (which was around ten in the morning). On Saint Anne's Day, mass was celebrated at sunrise.
Vespers were sung on the three Easters of the year, on the day of Saint Martin (patron saint), the eve of the Immaculate Conception, the eve of the infra octave of Corpus Christi.
5. PARISH RIGHTS ACCORDING TO THE CUSTOM OF VILLAFÁFILA
Large body burial
When there are assistants and they sing with the priest, office and mass (36 reales), what must be done?
add: 1 bushel of wheat; pound and a half of wax for the church and 1 for the priest. If he wears Dalmática to attend (5 reales) for each time he wears it. If mass is not celebrated, the funeral fee is paid (6 reales).
End of year: 22 reales
Other functions dedicated to the Virgin, saints, etc. with vespers, procession and mass: 20 reales.
Weddings: Wedding with proclamation, betrothal and mass (20 reales) Baptisms: To the parish priest (4 reales); to the sacristan (2 reales).
Sacristan: For major burial (6 reales in each office); without clothing (2 reales); end of the year (6 reales in each office); Weddings (4 royals); Particular functions with vespers and mass (4 reales).
Rights on pious burdens.
Related to parish rights, we indicate the content of the provisions published by the Bishopric of Astorga (1834).
1. Of all the amounts that the parish priests receive either for masses sung or prayed, or for processions, or for any other concept, a common fund will be created, the amount of which must be applied entirely in masses prayed with the stipend of four reales per each one making the application in general for the intention of the founders of the anniversaries in the amounts collected that belong.
2. All sung masses for the dead that are currently current or will be current in the future will be applied in the respective parishes. When the founder has indicated the alms of these masses, they will be applied for it whenever it reaches the amount of six reales each, and eight for the night of the dead, and the same when the bearers of the goods have paid up to the present equal or higher stipend. But if the foundation has less, and the possessors do not want to increase it, we reduce these masses to the type of prayers with the alms of four reales, celebrating as many as are appropriate in this regard.
3. Of the prayed masses that are also up to date or are put forward whose stipend indicated by the foundation, or paid from time immemorial to the present does not reach the common four reales, the parish priests will reduce half of its amount and apply in their respective parishes, charging for each Mass the expressed ordinary alms, and the other half will be sent to the general collective of the Bishopric for distribution and prompt application in the customary manner.
Table 11. Comparative study of parish rights between Villafáfila and Otero de Sariegos (expressed in reais). Own elaboration.
Acts and legislative provisions on Otero de Sariegos: 1925-1972
Minutes and legislative provisions are presented that directly affected the structure of this municipality that was subject to absorption by the neighboring municipalities (Villarrín de Campos and Villafáfila) that will finally determine the end of Otero, becoming dependent on a Solomonic form, but not equivalent: Villarrín (ecclesial administration) and in Villafáfila the town council of Otero de Sariegos is integrated.
Villarrín de Campos City Council. Extraordinary session today, January 5, one thousand nine hundred and twenty-five 
Subject: Grouping of the municipality of Otero de Sariegos to Villarrín de Campos Literal copy of the minutes of the council
In the town of Villarrín de Campos, on January 5, 1925, at eight o'clock, with prior summons to that effect, they met in the town hall of this town in a plenary session of this town council, which on the sidelines is expressed under the presidency of the Mayor Higinio Gómez Prieto, and assistance from my secretary in order to hold an extraordinary session on this day and at the appointed time it was declared open.
Next, I, the order secretary of the Mayor President, reported and read the communication received in this mayor's office from the Government Delegate dated 2 current regarding whether or not this mayor's office is in accordance with the Otero de Sariegos City Council Group. , which transcribed says like this.
“Forced Grouping of Municipalities of less than 500 inhabitants is established for the purposes of having a single Secretary in which the minimum salary of the latter according to the scale established in article 37 of the Regulation of municipal officials approved by
RD of last August 23 exceeds 20% of municipal income and the Sariegos City Council being one of those included in said group for exceeding the Secretary's salary of said 20% of income, I inform VI so that it can be used. Tell me if you agree with that City Council being grouped with that of your worthy presidency for such purposes or if the opposite opinion should not be done, the reasons you deem appropriate for this, sending me a literal copy of the agreement reached by the Corporation on this matter."
The full City Council is aware of the above offer by the Government Delegate of this party according to my transcribed communication and taking into account that this town's entire neighbors are agricultural and the one that owns four-fifths of the term of Otero de Sariegos and considering that said town, due to its small number of inhabitants, would not be possible on its own to sustain all the burden imposed by the State, province and municipality and considering that this town of close to 2000 inhabitants is considered capable of supporting directing and manage
all charges and encumbrances, unanimously and in full agreement agreed to accept in all its parts the Group of Otero de Sariegos to this City Council of Villarrín de Campos in accordance with the RD of August 23, 1924 and other provisions in force in order to be considered in all its parts with a better right to another city council and with sufficient capacity in its administration and good governance.
In this regard also when a copy of this agreement is sent to the Government Delegate for the purposes indicated, the present minutes are drawn up and signed by the President with all the attending councilors that I, the secretary, certify."
Signatories: Higinio Gómez Prieto (mayor).
Blas Vidal Bueno, Julio Ferrero Gallego, Francisco Gómez Temprano, Lorenzo Ferrero Ferreras, Jacinto Ferreras García, Obdulio Tabera Hernández, Joaquín Ferrero Gómez (councilmen).
The secretary signs illegibly.
STATUTES OF THE CITY COUNCIL OF OTERO AND VILLA-FÁFILA (1939) 
By which the group formed by the town councils of Villafáfila and Otero de Sariegos must be governed for the purposes of having a common secretary for the service of the two town councils approved by the entities in compliance with the provisions of articles 5 and following of Law 12/15/1939, whose regulations are submitted to the Minister of the Interior
Art. 1. The two town councils of Villafáfila and Otero de Sariegos are constituted as a Group for the purposes expressed in the following article, with the name of “COMMUNITY OF VILLAFÁFILA AND OTERO DE SARIEGOS”
and this will be governed by these statutes. In what is not provided for in them, by the pertinent precepts of the Municipal Law, Statute of this name and its Regulations and by the complementary provisions issued or that will be issued until this Group is dissolved.
Art. 2nd. The exclusive purpose of the Commonwealth is to have a Secretary for the service of the two town councils that compose it, whose official will have the special rights and obligations set forth in these Statutes.
Art. 3º. The capital of the Commonwealth is set at the location of the Villafáfila secretariat, which in turn is the town hall of said town, in view of being the central point for the entire territory of the Commonwealth, and this being the one with the greatest number of population.
Art. 4. In accordance with articles 37 and 41 of the Regulation of municipal officials of August 23, 1924, the minimum salary of the secretary of this entity is set at the amount of THREE THOUSAND pesetas, taking into account that the entire group has one thousand eight hundred fifty-six inhabitants by law, according to the general population census of one thousand nine hundred and thirty.
Art. 5º. The legal salary referred to in the previous article will be distributed between the two town councils for its allocation in the budget and payment in the manner indicated in the following article.
Art. 6º. Corresponding salary according to this proportion
Art. 7º. The mayor of the head of the Commonwealth will order the payment of the corresponding salary on a monthly basis even when the respective municipalities have not paid their respective quota, which they must verify each month, without prejudice to the administrative pressure.
Art. 8º. As long as these Statutes are not modified, the salary of the Secretary cannot be increased with respect to the Group, without prejudice to the freedom of each of the town councils to voluntarily increase the aliquot part of it; When this happens, these voluntary increases will not be taken into account for retirement or other purposes, but in any case and for all purposes it will be understood as a regulatory salary paid by the Group.
Art. 9. The right to five-year terms is recognized in favor of the secretary of the Group, in accordance with article 109 of the Official Regulations of August 23, 1924 and Royal Order of January 3, 1928, in relation to article 165 of the Municipal Law.
Art. 10º. The secretary will have the obligation to attend the sessions held in each of the town councils of Villafáfila and Otero de Sariegos, and they must agree so that the meetings do not coincide on the same day, except in exceptional cases of extraordinary sessions, which cannot excuse their attendance as long as the hours are compatible.
Art. 11º. The office hours of the secretariat of the Commonwealth, which is also that of the town hall of Villafáfila, will be in accordance with the Order of December 16, 1937, BOE No. 424, which will be indicated by the secretary, in agreement with the mayor of the town hall of Villafáfila. Villafáfila.
Art. 12º. There will be no preference for the dispatch of the affairs of one town council or another, but said priority will be determined by the nature of the Service due to its greater urgency, appreciated by the secretary as head of administrative services.
Art. 13º. Taking into account that the secretary of the town council of Otero de Sarigos is vacant, the current secretary of Villafáfila is appointed to the position of the Mancomunidad.
Art. 14º. This Group is established for an indefinite period and will come into force upon the approval of these statutes by the Ministry of the Interior.
Art. 15º. To modify these statutes, agreement is required from the Board that represents the Commonwealth and subsequent approval from the Ministry of the Interior.
Art. 16º. The Board referred to in the previous article will be made up of one councilor for each of the municipalities of Villafáfila and Otero de Sariegos designated by them and the mayor of Villafáfila who will be the president.
Art. 17º. This will have all the powers attributed to it by article eleven of the Population Regulations of July 2, 1924 and those that are specific to the Group.
Art. 18º. The Board will be the only one competent to sanction the secretary, but for the suspension or dismissal, not other corrections, to be valid, it is essential that in addition to mediating the causes and complying with the formalities of articles 193 and 197 of the Municipal Law of 1935 and 49 to 55 of the Regulation of Secretaries, are agreed or ratified by each of the mayors if it involves suspension or by two thirds of the councilors of each of the added towns in case of dismissal.
Villafáfila, September 10, 1940. The Commission of Representatives. Signed: Gabino Gómez
Agreement of the town council of Villafáfila and Otero de Sariegos by which articles 4, 5 and 6 of the rules by which the Group formed for the purposes of supporting a common secretary for the service of the two town councils must be governed; approved on September 10, 1940.
The rules or statutes by which the Group formed by the town councils of Villafáfila and Otero de Sariegos must be governed have been drafted for the purposes of having a common secretary, and the Decree dated February 24 establishing the minimum salary scale for the secretaries of the local administration, and taking into account the total number of inhabitants that make up the aforementioned Group, it is appropriate to modify articles 4, 5 and 6 of the aforementioned statutes; Accordingly, they will be worded as follows:
Art. 4. In accordance with the provisions of the first article of the decree of the Ministry of the Interior dated February 24, 1941, the minimum salary of the secretary is set at the amount of FOUR THOUSAND pesetas, taking into account that the entire Group has 1,856 de jure inhabitants, according to the General Population Census of 1930.
Art. 5º. The legal salary referred to in the previous article will be distributed between the two municipalities for its entry in the budget and payment in the manner indicated in the following article, in accordance with this proportion:
Art. 6º. The Group's only legal recourse is the amount of four thousand pesetas that will be allocated annually between the two town councils in their ordinary budgets according to the scale of the previous article.
Villafáfila, October 8, 1941. The Commission of Representatives. Signed: Gabino Gómez.
11.4 DECREE 2052/1972, of July 12, which approves the incorporation of the Municipality of Otero de Sariegos to that of Villafáfila, in the province of Zamora.
Taking into account the concurrent economic and administrative circumstances in the Municipality of Otero de Sariegos, it is agreed to initiate a file for the incorporation of said Municipality to the bordering Municipality of Villafáfila, both in the province of Zamora.
Subsequently, almost all of the residents of Otero de Sariegos addressed the Civil Government of Zamora requesting the incorporation of their Municipality into that of Villafáfila, motivating it in its small population, limited economic capacity and in the proximity and good relations existing between the two Municipalities. .
During the hearing process with the interested Municipalities, the Municipality of Villafáfila agreed, with the legal quorum, to accept the incorporation of the Municipality of Otero de Sariegos into its Municipality. The Municipality of Otero de Sariegos considered it more convenient to incorporate its Municipality into that of Villarrín de Campos, also in the province of Zamora, in agreements adopted without the legal quorum. For its part, the Villarrín de Campos City Council accepted, with the legal quorum, the incorporation of the Municipality of Otero de Sariegos into its own.
Once the processed files have been legally substantiated, which were accumulated due to their intimate connection, it is clear that the agreements adopted by the City Council of Otero de Sariegos to incorporate its Municipality into that of Villarrín de Campos have not been with the quorum required in article three hundred and three of the current Local Regime Law, and the existence of the well-known reasons of economic and administrative convenience required by article fourteen, in relation to thirteen, section e) of said Law, which advise the incorporation of the Municipality of Otero, is sufficiently accredited. from Sariegos to Villafáfila.
In its virtue, in accordance with the opinions issued by the General Directorate of Local Administration and by the Permanent Commission of the Council of State, at the proposal of the Minister of the Interior and after deliberation of the Council of Ministers at its meeting on the seventh of July one thousand nine hundred and seventy-two,
First article. The incorporation of the Municipality of Otero de Sariegos to the border of Villafáfila, in the province of Zamora, is approved.
Second article. The Ministry of the Interior is empowered to dictate the provisions that may require compliance with this Decree.
I so provide by this Decree, given in Madrid on July thirteenth, one thousand nine hundred and seventy-two. Francisco Franco. The Minister of the Interior: Tomás Garicano Goñi.
Study of population, surnames, parish rights, uses and customs. Otero de Sariegos (Zamora), 19th century
FRANCISCO TRANCÓN PÉREZ**Teaching Inspector, Doctor in Philosophy and Educational Sciences.
José Luis Domínguez Martínez.
Transcription and assembly :
José Luis Domínguez Martínez.
All text, photographs, transcription and montage, their rights belong to their authors, any type of use is prohibited without authorization.
All text and photographs have been authorized for storage, treatment, work, transcription and assembly by José Luis Domínguez Martínez, their dissemination on villafafila.net, and any media deemed authorized.
 Parish Archive. The priest recorded in this book identifying details of the parishioners, practice of the sacraments or other topics that he considered of interest.
 Source: Register of individuals subject to taxes on personal identification cards. 1882-1883. This document includes 86 people over 14 years of age.
 This inventory was ordered to be carried out on the occasion of the “Holy Visit of the Bishopric of Astorga”. Witnesses: Lorenzo Gómez (Factory Butler); Diego Suena (Regidor); Nemesio Calzada (neighbor) and Juan Llamas (Sacristán)
 Municipal Archive of the Villarrín de Campos City Council
 Provincial Historical Archive of Zamora. File 62, Villafáfila Section.